Bash is great: It is a shell scripting language that is baked into every new Apple computer and many, many Linux distributions too. It is fun to learn and easy to find your “insert repetitive task here” to Bash translation on Stack Exchange, just a search away. As you uses the command prompt more and more for increasingly cool GIS tasks- be it for Python QGIS OR ESRI, R language for data cleaning and analysis, or just because you noticed you can get “mad amounts of work done” at increasingly faster rates- your vocabulary in the UNIX shell and bash will naturally grow.
I wanted to make a GIS post for Mac OS because it is both under-represented (for great reasons) in GIS and arguably the number 1 choice for any discerning consumers of computer hardware.
Many Linux OS options are faster for much of this “UNIX for GIS”, as quite a few of the things we need are already included with many Debian / Ubuntu distros, and come forms that have been stable for a long, long time.
If you are looking to setup a system primarily for GIS / data science (disregarding ESRI of course), See my initial notes on the Ubuntu variant Pop_OS by System76. If you like the ChromeOS vibe for multitasking and simplicity and the familiarity of Mac OS, it is a keeper (and also a sleeper, seeing how many folks are still on Windows for GIS…….).
(The less you have in your way on your screen, the faster you can go!) xD
Note: in my opinion, homebrew and macPorts are good ideas- try them! If you don’t have it, get it now:
/usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
(….However, port or brew installing QGIS and GDAL (primarily surrounding the delicate links between QGIS / GDAL / Python 2 & 3 / OSX local paths) can cause baffling issues. If possible, don’t do that. Use QGIS installers from the official site and build from source!)
if you need to resolve issues with your GDAL packages via removal: on MacPorts, try similar:
sudo port uninstall qgis py37-gdal # on homebrew, list then remove (follow its instructions): brew list brew uninstall gdal geos gdal2
There are numerous issues with brew-installed gdal. Those I have run into include:
- linking issues with the crucial directory “gdal-data” (libraries)
- linking issues Python bindings and python 2 vs. 3 getting confused
- internal raster library conflicts against the gdal requirements
- Proj.4 inconsistencies (see source notes below)
- OSX Framework conflicts with source / brew / port (http://www.kyngchaos.com/software/frameworks/)
- Linking conflicts with old, qgis default / LTR libraries against new ones
- Major KML discrepancies: expat standard vs libkml.
brew install gdal # # brew install qgis can work in a pinch too. At least you can unbrew it! #
# double check CLI is working: gdalinfo --version # “GDAL 2.4.0, released 2018/12/14” gdal_merge.py # list of args
To begin: Lets try a recent assignment that relies on the ESRI mosaic system and lots of GUI and clicking but use GDAL instead.
Data source: ftp://ftp.granit.sr.unh.edu/pub/GRANIT_Data/Vector_Data/Elevation_and_Derived_Products/d-elevationdem/d-10m/
!! Warning! These files are not projected in a way ESRI or GDAL understands. They WILL NOT HAVE A LOCATION IN QGIS. They will, however, satisfy the needs of my assignment.
# wget on mac is great. This tool (default on linux) lets us grab GIS data from # most providers, via FTP and similar protocols. brew install wget
make some folders
mkdir GIS_Projects && cd GIS_Projects
use wget to download every .dem file (-A .dem) from the specified folder and sub-folders (-r)
wget -r -A .dem ftp://ftp.granit.sr.unh.edu/pub/GRANIT_Data/Vector_Data/Elevation_and_Derived_Products/d-elevationdem/ cd ftp.granit.sr.unh.edu/pub/GRANIT_Data/Vector_Data/Elevation_and_Derived_Products/d-elevationdem
make an index file of only .dem files.
(If we needed to download other files and keep them from our wget (more common) this way we can still sort the various files for .dem)
ls -1 *.dem > dem_list.txt
use gdal to make state-plane referenced “Output_merged.tif” from the list of files in the index we made. it will use a single generic “0 0 255” band to show gradient.
gdal_merge.py -init "0 0 255" -o Output_Merged.tif --optfile dem_list.txt
copy the resulting file to desktop, then return home
cp Output_Merged.tif ~/desktop && cd
if you want (recommended):
rm -rf GIS_Projects # remove .dem files. Some are huge!
In Finder at in ~/desktop, open the new file with QGIS. A normal photo viewer will NOT show any detail.
Need to make something like this a reusable script? In Terminal, just a few extra steps:
mkdir GIS_Scripts && cd GIS_Scripts
open an editor + filename. Nano is generally pre-installed on OSX.
COPY + PASTE THE SCRIPT FROM ABOVE INTO THE WINDOW
- ctrl+X , then Y for yes
make your file runnable:
chmod u+x GDAL_LiveMerge.sh
run with ./
open GIS_Projects you can now copy + paste your script anywhere you want and run it there. scripts like this should not be exported to your global path / bashrc and will only work if they are in the directory you are calling them: If you need a global script, there are plenty of ways to do that too.
Notes on source-
Please understand this is probably far from the last post you’ll need before you flex your GDAL powers.
// If it works in less the 6 tries you win //
Back in Terminal:
get some tools we need, mostly for the step configuring proj.4 from github each of these are used in this method of installation, but much of each package will be ignored
brew install autoconf automake wget postgresql libiconv brew link --force libiconv # this *may* need to be linked as well brew link libxml2 --force #
Setup your home directory- go home
cd # get proj.4 from the gdal people first. git clone https://github.com/OSGeo/proj.4 # ./autogen.sh ./configure # # Make takes ~1-10 min on # sudo make sudo make install cd #
get gdal, repeat steps # ./autogen.sh is usually not needed for gdal but to take no chances, run it anyway as they also include in in the repo….?
git clone https://github.com/OSGeo/gdal cd gdal/gdal # ./autogen.sh # ./configure
some configure ideas:
--with-python --with-pcraster=internal --with-libjson-c=internal --with-jpeg=internal --with-geotiff=internal --with-libtiff=internal # # Use a prefix to make an attempt at sandboxing the gdal install. This may be required. # # More ideas: # --with-curl=/usr/local/bin/curl LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/opt/libiconv/lib" LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/opt/libxml2/lib" CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/opt/libxml2/include" LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/opt/libiconv/lib" LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/Cellar//openssl/1.0.2q/lib/"
sudo make sudo make install